24/10/2017
康斯坦丝小姐 

 

人 l 打造伦敦天际线的鬼才建筑大师
Genius Architect Designing the London Skyline

沿着泰晤士河由西往东走,国会大厦、大本钟、伦敦眼在河边排排站,圆顶圣保罗大教堂、烟囱高耸的 Tate Modern 和闪闪发亮的 The Shard 在南北两岸对望,唯有千禧桥连接彼此。继续向东走,最具代表性的伦敦塔桥站立在泰晤士河上,还有千禧巨蛋 The O2 张牙舞爪向世人宣告自己的存在。

弯弯曲曲的河流把整座城市划分成南岸与北岸,还有无数高楼大厦,有的像小黄瓜、像Walkie Talkie,有的倒像厨房里的起司刨刀,各式各样标地性建筑物,高高低低、新旧交错,构成这座多元且极具包容性的城市,独特天际线让人一眼就认出,是朝思暮想的伦敦。

每一栋建物落成,都为周遭环境带来新面貌,也为城市注入生命和活力,打造伦敦建筑群像幕后推手中,鬼才建筑师理查·罗杰斯不可忽略。

Walking along the Thames River to the west, you will see the Houses of Parliament, Big Ben and London Eye standing on the river, with St. Paul’s Cathedral that has a dome, the Tate Modern with standing-high chimney and luminous Shard standing on the other side of the bank, which are connected by the Millennium Bridge. If you continue to walk eastward, you can see the most representative London Bridge standing across the Thames River, and the O2 announcing its existence by making high-profiled presence.  

The winding river divides the city into the northern and southern parts. Some of the many skyscrapers, such as Walkie Talkie, look like a small cucumber; and some look like the cheese planer used in the kitchen. The various landmark buildings, high and low, old and new, make this diverse and tolerant city, whose unique skyline can quickly tells people this is nowhere but London.

Each building, upon completion, would bring a new look to the surrounding environment while instilling new life and vigor into the city. Richard Rogers, the genius architect, is the one helping to design London buildings. 


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理查·罗杰斯于1933年在意大利佛罗伦斯出生,父母是意大利人,后来举家搬到英国落地生根。理查罗杰斯的童年不算顺遂,因为阅读障碍,在班上成绩始终吊车尾,还被叫作笨蛋。这让他童年一度相当灰暗,直到11岁情况才渐渐好转。

理查·罗杰斯曾进入伦敦建筑联盟学院就读,1962年又从美国耶鲁大学拿到硕士学位,隔年回英国,和耶鲁同学诺曼福斯特以及他们的太太一起组成Team 4,成为高科技设计的代表人物。他的作品向来话题不断,法国巴黎的蓬皮杜中心(Pompidou Centre)正是最好的例子。

Richard Rogers was born in Florence of Italy in 1933 into an Italian family. Later his family moved to UK. The childhood of Richard Rogers was not quite successful. Because of the reading problem, Richard lagged behind his classmates in academic performance, thus called Idiot. His childhood was actually quite gloomy till he was 11 years old.

Once studying in Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, Richard Rogers also received degree from Yale University in 1962. In the following year, he returned to UK and established Team 4 together with his Yale classmate Norman Forster and their wives. As the representative figure of high-tech architectural designs, his works often attract great attention, including the Pompidou Centre in Paris, France. 

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1971年,当时才30多岁的理查罗杰斯和意大利建筑师伦佐皮亚诺合作,从600多组蓬皮杜中心国际竞图参赛者中脱颖而出。

1977年,蓬皮杜中心落成。人们看到这座建筑的管线、钢骨坦荡荡的围绕在墙体外部,一条直通到顶的电扶梯,像巨蟒般节节向上攀,还漆上了鲜艳的外衣。这种大胆前卫的设计和巴黎传统优雅的市容显得格格不入,引发市民强烈抗议,媒体也是负评居多,当时只有文艺界人士欣赏它的美,这种反传统风格被纽约时报称作是”令建筑界天翻地覆”的设计。

In 1971, Richard Rogers, in his 30s, went into partnership with Renzo Piano, an Italian architect. They excelled out of the more than 600 international competitors for Pompidou Centre. 

In 1977, Pompidou Centre was completed. People found the pipelines and steel structures right on the exterior walls. A lift, painted in gorgeous color, climbs up to the roof. The bold and avant garde design makes the building look quite weird in the elegant city look of Paris, thus arousing strong protest from the citizens and negative comments in the media. Only people in the community of art could appreciate its beauty. The unorthodox style was rated by the New York Times as “overthrowing the architecture arena”. 

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“A place for all people, all ages, all creeds, the rich and the poor.”

“打造一个属于大众的艺术中心,不论贫富、信仰、老少,所有人都能接触艺术,成为全民休闲聚集的去处。”秉持著这样的理念,蓬皮杜中心的设计,不只是炒话题而已。外露的电扶梯让建筑里的人有机会和街道上的人分享生活,外露管线上的缤纷色彩,也不只是单纯点缀装饰,其实各自代表不同功能,蓝色的是空调、绿色的是水管,电子线路则装在黄色管线中。

走过40个年头,蓬皮杜中心已经成为巴黎知名地标,是市民消遣的好去处,也是外国游客必访清单上绝不会错过的景点。极具争议性的设计,让理查·罗杰斯一举成名,是美是丑,就留给大家自己来评断。

“A place for all people, all ages, all creeds, the rich and the poor.”

“Build an art center for the public so that all people, regardless of their wealth, belief and age, can have access to art, thus making it a destination for the public to seek relaxation”. Following this philosophy, the design of Pompidou Centre not only generates the hot topic. The exposed elevator ensures people in the building can share their life with people walking on the street. The gorgeous colors on the exposed pipelines are not only decorations. Actually, they represent different functions. The blue represents AC, green represents water pipes and yellow pipes contain the electric cables.

40 years has passed and Pompidou Centre has become a famous landmark in Paris, a favorite destination for local citizens to seek relaxation, and the must-be scenic spot for overseas tourists. The controversial design made Richard Rogers famous. The right lies in the people to judge whether it is beautiful or not. 


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他的特殊风格没在这儿就此打住,高耸在伦敦金融区的 Lloyd’s Building 也是他的杰作。

1977年,理查罗杰斯和 Marco Goldschmied,  Mike Davies 以及 John Young 共组 Richard Rogers Partnership 建筑师事务所,也就是现在 Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners 的前身。

1978年 Richard Rogers Partnership 得标改建Lloyd’s企业总部。这座Lloyd’s Building 在1986年落成,又是另一个内外翻转的代表作。

His special style never ends here. Later he designed another structure the Lloyd’s Building in the financial district of London. 

In 1977, Richard Rogers, Marco Goldschmied, Mike Davies and John Young established the Richard Rogers Partnership, which is now called Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners.

In 1978, Richard Rogers Partnership won the bid to renovate corporate headquarters of Lloyd’s. The Lloyd’s Building was completed in 1986, which is a masterpiece in the other way. 

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它的建造大量使用不锈钢、铝材等合金材料,高耸的银色高楼在阳光的照耀下闪闪发亮,看起来就像冰冷无情的钢铁怪物,也像城市里的巨大油井,充满高科技感的独特风格,是全球最受瞩目的建筑之一。

从 London Bridge 漫步走来,人们看过伦敦塔桥、大火纪念碑,又穿越数百年历史的 Leadenhall Market,突然间 Lloyd’s Building 就伫立在眼前,得高高仰起头才能看到他的全貌,非常震撼!

Lloyd’s Building 管线、电梯、逃生楼梯全赤裸裸露于墙面之外,厕所也向外推,在办公大楼林立的金融区,依然显得与众不同。在30多年前,这样的设计就更加惊世骇俗了。

它的内部设计更像电影场景——保留了1928年劳氏企业总部的建筑门面,再向上延伸,古典和高科技未来感相互融合,空间机能安排上也处处看得见设计师的巧思。

每个楼层都能通过天井感受到阳光,这不仅能减少照明设备,也减少了金融区办公大楼的压迫感。

理查罗杰斯和他的合伙人的作品遍及全世界:马德里巴拉哈斯机场第四航厦、欧洲人权法庭、纽约世贸大楼第三座摩天大楼,还有台湾高雄中央公园站、桃园机场第三航厦,都是出自他们之手。伦敦更是他们的大本营,随处漫游遇上的标的性建筑,很可能就是他们的大作。